PSHE (Personal, Social, Health Education) Policy including Relationships Education, Sex Education and Health Education
All schools must provide a curriculum that is broadly based, balanced and meets the needs of all pupils. Under section 78 of the Education Act 2002 and the Academies Act 2010, a PSHE curriculum:
- Promotes the spiritual, moral, cultural, mental and physical development of pupils at the school and of society, and
- Prepares pupils at the school for the opportunities, responsibilities and experiences of later life.
An amendment to the Children and Social Work Act 2017 made Relationships and Health Education at primary; and Relationships, Sex, and Health Education at secondary, statutory subjects. The DfE guidance on Relationships, Health and Sex Education for governing bodies can be seen here. This became active from September 2020.
We are confident that the Kapow Programme covers all aspects of Relationships, Sex and Health Education (RSHE) within the context of a full PSHE programme in an age-appropriate way. Should changes to these curriculum areas occur in the future, Kapow will provide its schools with materials to ensure all statutory duties are fulfilled.
This Kapow PSHE policy is also informed by DfE guidance on Relationships, Sex and Health Education (as above), preventing and tackling bullying (Preventing and tackling bullying: Advice for head teachers, staff and governing bodies, July 2013, updated 2017), Drug and Alcohol Education (DfE and ACPO drug advice for schools: Advice for local authorities, headteachers, school staff and governing bodies, September 2012), safeguarding (Working Together to Safeguard Children: A guide to inter-agency working to safeguard and promote the welfare of children, March 2013 and Keeping Children Safe in Education, 2018) and equality (Equality Act 2010: Advice for school leaders, school staff, governing bodies and local authorities, revised June 2014).
The Kapow Programme meets all the outcomes in the PSHE Association Programmes of Study, 2017.
Aim of the Kapow PSHE policy
To provide pupils with the knowledge, understanding, attitudes, values and skills they need in order to reach their potential as individuals and within the community.
Pupils are encouraged to take part in a wide range of activities and experiences across and beyond the curriculum, contributing fully to the life of their school and communities. In doing so they learn to recognise their own worth, work well with others and become increasingly responsible for their own learning. They reflect on their experiences and understand how they are developing personally and socially, tackling many of the spiritual, moral, social and cultural issues that are part of growing up.
They learn to understand and respect our common humanity; diversity and differences so that they can go on to form the effective, fulfilling relationships that are an essential part of life and learning.
In our school we choose to deliver Personal, Social, Health Education using Jigsaw, the mindful approach to PSHE.
Objectives/Pupil learning intentions:
Kapow PSHE will support the development of the skills, attitudes, values and behaviour, which enable pupils to:
- Have a sense of purpose
- Value self and others
- Form relationships
- Make and act on informed decisions
- Communicate effectively
- Work with others
- Respond to challenge
- Be an active partner in their own learning
- Be active citizens within the local community
- Explore issues related to living in a democratic society
- Become healthy and fulfilled individuals
Kapow covers all areas of PSHE for the primary phase, as the table below shows:
Families and relationships
Learning about creating and maintaining positive and respectful relationships (family and friends) and learning about loss and change
Health and Wellbeing
Learning about personal hygiene (handwashing, teeth, sun safety and preventing disease). Explore strategies for positive habits (sleep, exercise, relaxation, diet and visualisation). Caring and nurturing their own mental health
Safety and the Changing Body
Learning how to be safe, including online, safety with drugs (learning about correct use) and the damage alcohol and drugs can cause to our bodies.
Safety and the Changing Body
Learning about the names of our body parts, puberty and conception of babies (Y6). Basic understanding of first aid (calling for help, asthma, allergic reaction, bleeding and how to respond if someone is unseasponsive)
Learning about rules and why they are necessary, exploring children’s rights and how to protect them, looking after our school environment and also how we can protect our world (recycling, reusing items, environmental issues). In KS2 children will also learn about Parliament (House of Commons, House of Lords and the Monarch)
Learning about keeping money safe, understanding how banks work, making positive choices with money, explore why people may choose certain jobs, discuss the positive and negatives effects money can have towards people and their feelings
There is also a strand at the end of each academic year regarding transition, to help support children to have a positive change.
Relationship and Sex Education (Relationships, Sex and Health Education)
Definition of Relationships, Sex and Health Education (RSHE)
From September 2020, Relationships Education is compulsory for all primary schools as set out in the DfE Guidance (2019). For all maintained schools there is also a statutory duty to provide Health Education. This includes primary aged children learning about the ‘changing adolescent body’, included in the expected outcomes for primary Health Education. (Relationships Education, Relationships and Sex Education, and Health Education, DfE, 2019). There is a current statutory duty for Independent schools to provide PSHE and they must meet the Independent School Standards as set out in the Education (Independent School Regulations 2014). Independent schools may find the DfE guidance on Relationships Education, Sex Education and Health Education useful in planning and age-appropriate curriculum.
All primary schools are legally obliged to have an up-to-date policy for Relationships and Sex Education (RSE) that describes the content and organisation of RSE. In primary schools if the decision is taken to teach sex education beyond Relationships and Health Education and National curriculum Science, this should also be documented in the policy. The policy should be made available to parents/carers on request and also available on the school’s website. It is the school governors’ responsibility to ensure that the policy is developed and implemented effectively.
Effective Relationships and Sex Education can make a significant contribution to the development of the personal skills needed by pupils if they are to establish and maintain relationships. It also enables children and young people to make responsible and informed decisions about their health and well-being. This is why the DfE recommend:
“… that all primary schools should have a sex education programme tailored to the age and the physical and emotional maturity of the pupils. It should ensure that both boys and girls are prepared for the changes that adolescence brings and – drawing on knowledge of the human life cycle set out in the national curriculum for science - how a baby is conceived and born.” (Relationships Education, Relationships and Sex Education, and Health Education, DfE, 2019, para 67).
Compulsory aspects of Relationships, Sex and Health Education.
End of primary expectations and curriculum content is given in the Relationships Education, Relationships and Sex Education, and Health Education DfE guidance (2019). It is up to schools to determine how this is taught as part of a broad and balanced curriculum. Where a school delivers this as part of a whole programme of PSHE, such as Jigsaw, they are free to continue with this approach.
The sex education contained in National Curriculum science (Key Stages 1–4) is compulsory in maintained schools.
- ‘All children, including those who develop earlier than average, need to know about puberty before they experience the onset of physical changes’ (1.13)
- Children should learn ‘how a baby is conceived and born’ before they leave primary school (1.16)
RSHE plays a very important part in fulfilling the statutory duties all schools have to meet. RSHE helps children understand the difference between safe and abusive relationships and equips them with the skills to get help if they need it. It also teaches them about the importance of a healthy lifestyle and positive mental health, about online and off line safety. Schools have responsibilities for safeguarding and a legal duty to promote pupil well-being (Education and Inspections Act 2006 Section 38).
- Sex and Relationships Education (SRE) is an important part of PSHE Education (DfE, 2014).
- When any school provides RSE they must have regard to the Secretary of States guidance; this is a statutory duty. Ofsted will evaluate how schools help to ensure a healthy lifestyle for their children (Ofsted, 2019, Education Inspection Framework Para 28).
- It is compulsory for all maintained schools to teach the parts of sex education that fall under National Curriculum Science which must be taught to all pupils of primary and secondary age e.g. the biological aspects of puberty and reproduction (Education Act 1996, National Curriculum 2014).
Updated government safeguarding guidance is now available (Keeping Children Safe in Education, 2018) and includes a section about being alert to signs that young girls may be at risk of female genital mutilation (FGM). School summer holidays especially during the transition from primary to secondary schools is thought to be a key risk time for FGM. See also the government Multi-agency practice guidelines: Female Genital Mutilation (2016) which includes a section for schools.
RSHE has clear links with other school policies aimed at promoting pupils’ spiritual, moral, social and cultural development, including the:
- Anti-Bullying Policy
- Behaviour Policy
- Confidentiality Policy
- Drug and Alcohol Education Policy
- Equal Opportunities Policy
- Health and Safety Policy
- ICT Policy and Safe Internet Use Policy
- Inclusion Policy
- RE Policy
- Safeguarding/Child Protection Policy
- SMSC Policy
- Special Educational Needs Policy
The role of the Headteacher and Governing body
It is the responsibility of the Governors to ensure that as well as fulfilling their legal obligations, the governing boards or management committee should also make sure that:
• all pupils make progress in achieving the expected educational outcomes in regard to RSHE;
• RSHE is well led, effectively managed and well planned;
• the quality of RSHE provision is subject to regular and effective self-evaluation;
• teaching is delivered in ways that are accessible to all pupils with SEND;
• clear information is provided for parents on the subject content and the right to request that their child is withdrawn; and,
• the subjects are resourced, staffed and timetabled in a way that ensures that the school can fulfil its legal obligations
The headteacher liaises with external agencies regarding the school RSHE programme and ensures that all adults who work with children on these issues are aware of the school policy, and that they work within this framework. The headteacher monitors this policy on a regular basis and reports to governors, when requested, on the effectiveness of the policy. Parents should be consulted on the RSE policy and have the opportunity to express their views. They also must be informed of the limits of their right to withdraw their child from sex education and have the opportunity to do so within these limits.
Monitoring and Review
The Curriculum Committee of the governing body monitors the RSE policy on an annual basis. This committee reports its findings and recommendations to the full governing body, as necessary, if the policy needs modification. The Curriculum Committee gives serious consideration to any comments from parents about the sex education programme, and makes a record of all such comments. Governors require the headteacher to keep a written record, giving details of the content and delivery of the RSE programme that is taught in your school. Governors should scrutinise materials to check they are in accordance with the school’s ethos. Parents and carers have the right to see sample materials used within the teaching of RHSE and can do so by prior appointment with a member of staff, or at any open evening the school chooses to hold about this curriculum area. As Kapow materials are copyrighted the school is not permitted to put teaching materials on the public facing website, or provide electronic copies of materials to parents and carers at home.
The Equality Act 2010 covers the way the curriculum is delivered, as schools and other education providers must ensure that issues are taught in a way that does not subject pupils to discrimination. Schools have a duty under the Equality Act to ensure that teaching is accessible to all children and young people, including those who are lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT). Inclusive RSHE will foster good relations between pupils, tackle all types of prejudice – including homophobia – and promote understanding and respect. The Department for Education has produced advice on The Equality Act 2010 and schools (DfE, 2014b).
Schools have a legal duty to promote equality (Equality Act, 2010) and to combat bullying (Education Act, 2006) (which includes homophobic, sexist, sexual and transphobic bullying) and Section 4.2 of the national curriculum (2014) states “Teachers should take account of their duties under equal opportunities legislation that covers race, disability, sex, religion or belief, sexual orientation, pregnancy and maternity, and gender reassignment.”
“Schools should be alive to issues such as everyday sexism, misogyny, homophobia and gender stereotypes and take positive action to build a culture where these are not tolerated, and any occurrences are identified and tackled. Staff have an important role to play in modelling positive behaviours. School pastoral and behaviour policies should support all pupils.” (DfE, 2019)
Kapow RSE Content
The grid below shows specific RSE content for each year group:
Explore how families are different to each other; understand that families look after us; know words to describe how people are related (aunt/ uncle/ cousin); know that some information about their families are personal; explore friendly behaviours and how problems can be overcome; understand characteristics of positive relationships; know how other people share their feelings; know how we can care for others when they are sad; sterotyping; know what to do if they get lost; identify hazards that might be found at home; understand the roles of people in the community for keeping us safe; know what is and isn’t safe to put in our bodies; know that some types of physical contact are never appropriate;
Understand the concept of privacy; know how to be safe online; how to behave safely near roads and when crossing the road; know the PANTS rule; know that you tell an adult if you see something that makes you feel uncomfortable online; understand the difference between secrets and surprises; understand what people can do to feel better if they feel unwell; how to use medicines safely; know the names of body part, including private parts
; know differences between female and male bodies (correct terminology: penis, vagina, testicles, vulva); respecting my body and understand which parts are private.
Understand what cyberbullying is, explore ways of responding to cyberbullying or unkind behaviour online; develop skills to be a responsible online citizen; identify things people might do near roads that are unsafe; begin to recognise unsafe online content; know the signs that an email is fake; know that people and things can influence me and that they need to make the right decision for themselves;
Discuss how to seek help regarding online if you need it; know what to do if an adult makes me feel uncomfortable; know the benefits and risks of sharing information online; know the difference between public and private; know the benefits of being an non-smoker; know the risks associated with smoking and tobacco; discuss some physical and emotional changes during puberty; know the physical changes to both the male and female bodies;
Understand how to ensure relationships are safe online; know the steps to take before sending a message online; know some of the possible risks of online; learn to make ‘for’ and ‘against’ arguments to help with decision making; know some strategies to overcome pressure from others and make my own decisions; learn about emotional changes in puberty; identify reliable sources of help with puberty; understand the process of the menstrual cycle; know the names of the external sexual parts of the body and the internal reproductive organs; know that puberty happens at different ages for different people
Develop an understanding about the reliability of online information; explore online relationships, including deals with problems; know where to get help with online problems; discuss why adults may or may not drink alcohol; know the associated risks with alcohol; discuss problems that may occur during puberty and where to get help; know how a baby is conceived and develops;
Withdrawal from RSE lessons
Parents/carers have the right to withdraw their children from Sex Education provided at school except for those parts included in statutory National Curriculum Science and that included within Statutory Relationships and Health Education. Those parents/carers wishing to exercise this right are invited in to see the head teacher and/or Kapow Lead in school who will explore any concerns and discuss any impact that withdrawal may have on the child. Once a child has been withdrawn they cannot take part in the specific sex education lessons until the request for withdrawal has been removed. Materials are available to parents/carers who wish to supplement the school sex education programme or who wish to deliver sex education to their children at home.
Parents and carers cannot withdraw from any aspect of Relationships Education and also in maintained schools, Health Education lessons covering the changing adolescent body (puberty).
Working with parents and carers
The government guidance on Relationships, Sex Education and Health Education (DfE, 2019) emphasises the importance of schools working in partnership with parents and carers. Parents/carers should be aware that schools are legally required to provide a broad and balanced curriculum. Sex and relationships topics can arise incidentally in other subjects, such as Science, Geography, History, RE, and it is not possible to withdraw pupils from these relatively limited and often unplanned discussions. Parents should be given every opportunity to understand the purpose and content of Relationships Education and RSHE. Good communication and opportunities for parents to understand and ask questions about the school’s approach can help increase confidence in the curriculum.
Girl’s understanding of sanitary products and disposal in school
As part of lessons on puberty girls will be made aware of the procedures in place for accessing and the safe disposal of sanitary products. The school is aware that period poverty can be an issue for some pupils, and will to the best of its ability ensure that girls have access to appropriate sanitary products during school time.
Health Education including substance education, mental health education and safety education
Effective Health Education can make a significant contribution to the development of the personal skills needed by pupils as they grow up. It also enables young people to make responsible and informed decisions about their own and others’ health and well-being.
Moral and Values Framework
The Health Education programme at our school reflects the school ethos and demonstrates and encourages the following values. For example:
- Respect for self
- Respect for others
- Responsibility for their own actions
- Responsibility for their family, friends, schools and wider community
Kapow's Health Education Content
The grid below shows specific Health Education content for each year group:
Limit germs with good hand hygiene; 5 S’s for sun safety; how to deal with an allergic reaction; understand positive sleep habits and understand that your body requires sleep to repair, grow and restore energy; understand different methods of relaxation; understand health jobs and people who help us with health; personal strengths and qualities; strategies for managing feelings
The effect food and drink can have on our teeth; understand the benefits exercise can have on the body and mind; explore health benefits of a balanced diet; learn how to improve an unbalanced meal; explore breathing techniques to support relaxation; strategies for managing different emotions; develop empathy; identify personal goal and ways to achieve them; perseverance; growth mind set and self-respect
Importance of looking after our teeth; ways to prevent tooth decay; understand that stretches can be used for relaxation; plan for a healthy lifestyle with physical activity/ rest and a balanced diet; know the food groups and how much we should eat of each of them; importance of belonging’ explore identify by groups that they belong to; understand loneliness; explore own strengths and how these can be used to help others; break problems down into smaller parts to overcome it;
Develop independence in looking after their own teeth; know facts about dental hygiene; identify what makes them feel calm and relaxed; learn about visualisations; learn how their own skills can be used to undertake certain jobs; explore how to make themselves happy or happier; appreciate the emptions of others in different situations; take responsibility for own emotions by knowing how to control them; develop a growth mindset; mental health refers to our emotional wellbeing; mistakes can help us to learn; know who can help in we are worried about our own or someone else’s mental health
Develop independence for protecting themselves in the sun; understand the risk of sun exposure; understand the relationship between stress and relaxation; consider calories and food groups to plan healthy meals; develop greater responsibility for good quality sleep; understand what can cause stress and that failure is an important part to success
Consider ways to prevent illness; vaccinations gives us protection against diseases; know that changes in the body are a possible sign of illness; identify some actions to take if they are worried about their own of friends health; identify a range of relaxation strategies and situations in which they could be useful; explore good habits (diet, sleep, exercise, rest/ relaxation and dental health); set achievable goals for a healthy lifestyle; understand good and bad habits; explore personal qualities and how to build on them; develop strategies for being resilient in challenging situations; know that a number of factors effect mental health; know the effect technology can have on mental health
How is Kapow PSHE organised in school?
Kapow brings together PSHE Education, emotional literacy, social skills and spiritual development in a comprehensive scheme of learning. Teaching strategies are varied and are mindful of preferred learning styles and the need for differentiation. Kapow is designed as a whole school approach, with all year groups working on the same theme at the same time.
There are 5 units in Kapow that are designed to progress in sequence from September to June/July.
Each lesson has a clear learning intentions: based on specific PSHE learning (covering the non-statutory national framework for PSHE Education and the statutory Relationships and Health Education guidance, but enhanced to address children’s needs today).
The units are clearly devised to ensure they are relevant to children living in today’s world as it helps them understand and be equipped to cope with issues like body image, cyber and homophobic bullying, and internet safety.
Every lesson contributes to at least one of these aspects of children’s development.
- All Teachers are responsible for the delivery of Kapow PSHE
- The PSHE Co-ordinator (E Fabian is responsible for the monitoring and evaluation of Kapow
- The governor with responsibility for PSHE / RSHE is Mrs A. Penney
Kapow is written as a universal core curriculum provision for all children. Teachers will need, as always, to tailor each lesson to meet the needs of the children in their classes.
Teachers need to be aware that sometimes disclosures may be made during PSHE lessons; in which case, safeguarding procedures must be followed immediately. Sometimes it is clear that certain children may need time to talk one-to-one after the lesson closes. It is important to allow the time and appropriate staffing for this to happen. If disclosures occur, the school’s disclosure and/or confidentiality policy is followed.
Teachers will be eager to ensure children are making progress with their learning throughout their Jigsaw experience. Each lesson and unit have a clear success criteria for each year group
Monitoring and evaluation
The PSHE co-ordinator will monitor delivery of the programme through observation and discussion with teaching staff to ensure consistent and coherent curriculum provision.
Evaluation of the programme’s effectiveness will be conducted on the basis of:
- Pupil and teacher evaluation of the content and learning processes
- Staff meetings to review and share experience
External contributors from the community, e.g. health promotion specialists, school nurses, social workers, and community police and fire officers, make a valuable contribution to the Kapow PSHE programme. Their input should be carefully planned and monitored so as to fit into and complement the programme.
Teachers MUST always be present during these sessions and remain responsible for the delivery of the Kapow PSHE programme.
The Learning Environment
Establishing a safe, open and positive learning environment based on trusting relationships between all members of the class, adults and children alike, is vital. To enable this, it is important that ‘ground rules’ are agreed and owned at the beginning of the year and are reinforced. At the beginning of each school year there is a lesson which focuses on ‘setting the ground rules’
It needs to include the aspects below:
- We take turns to speak
- We use kind and positive words
- We listen to each other
- We have the right to pass
- We only use names when giving compliments or when being positive
- We respect each other’s privacy (confidentiality)
Teaching Sensitive and Controversial Issues
Sensitive and controversial issues are certain to arise in learning from real-life experience. Teachers will be prepared to handle personal issues arising from the work, to deal sensitively with, and to follow up appropriately, disclosures made in a group or individual setting. Issues that we address that are likely to be sensitive and controversial because they have a political, social or personal impact or deal with values and beliefs include: family lifestyles and values, physical and medical issues, financial issues, bullying and bereavement.
Teachers will take all reasonable, practical steps to ensure that, where political or controversial issues are brought to pupils’ attention, they are offered a balanced presentation of opposing views. Teachers will adopt strategies that seek to avoid bias on their part and will teach pupils how to recognise bias and evaluate evidence. Teachers will seek to establish a classroom climate in which all pupils are free from any fear of expressing reasonable points of view that contradict those held either by their class teachers or their peers.
Staff members are aware that views around RSHE-related issues are varied. However, while personal views are respected, all RSHE issues are taught without bias using Kapow. Topics are presented using a variety of views and beliefs so that pupils are able to form their own, informed opinions but also respect that others have the right to a different opinion.
Both formal and informal RSHE arising from pupils’ questions are answered according to the age and maturity of the pupil(s) concerned. Questions do not have to be answered directly, and can be addressed individually later. The school believes that individual teachers must use their skill and discretion in this area and refer to the Child Protection Coordinator if they are concerned.
Involving parents and carers
The school believes that it is important to have the support of parents, carers and the wider community for the Kapow PSHE programme. Parents and carers are/will be given the opportunity to find out about and discuss the Kapow programme through:
- Parents’/carers’ evenings
- Involvement in policy development
- Involvement in curriculum development
- It is useful for pupils to be consulted on their own personal, social and citizenship development. Ask pupils either in individual classes or through the school council what sort of person they would like to be by the time they leave this school; what qualities, skills, attitudes, values are important to them as people?
- Develop this further by asking pupils how they feel the school could support them with this, what initiatives the school could implement to support this e.g. friendship benches, peer mentoring systems.
Links to other policies and curriculum areas
We recognise the clear link between Kapow PSHE and the following policies and staff are aware of the need to refer to these policies when appropriate.
- Science curriculum
- Teaching and Learning Policy
- Equal Opportunities Policy
- Child Protection Policy
Training and support for staff
Opportunities are provided for staff to identify individual training needs on a yearly basis and relevant support is provided.
In addition to this, support for teaching and understanding PSHE issues is incorporated in our staff INSET programme, drawing on staff expertise and/or a range of external agencies.
This policy is available on our school website where it can be accessed by the community. Training is regularly delivered to staff on the policy content. Copies are available from the school office on request from parents/carers.
Confidentiality and Child Protection/Safeguarding Issues
As a general rule a child’s confidentiality is maintained by the teacher or member of staff concerned. If this person believes that the child is at risk or in danger, she/he talks to the named child protection co-ordinator who takes action as laid down in the Child Protection Policy. All staff members are familiar with the policy and know the identity of the member of staff with responsibility for Child Protection issues. The child concerned will be informed that confidentiality is being breached and reasons why. The child will be supported by the teacher throughout the process.